UNDO Enhanced Weathering

Accelerating the natural process of rock weathering, in which CO₂ in rainwater is locked away for over 1,000 years.

UNDO’s mission is to maintain a liveable planet for future generations, with a focus on scaling enhanced rock weathering—a permanent carbon removal technology—by working closely with agricultural partners to help improve soil conditions and crop yield.

Enhanced rock weathering (ERW) speeds up natural weathering, during which CO₂ in rainwater and soil moisture reacts with the surface area of basalt and mineralizes, resulting in its safe storage as solid bicarbonate ions for 100,000+ years.

UNDO’s operational model focuses on the efficient sourcing, haulage, and spreading of basalt.

To do so, UNDO purchases crushed basalt rock, which already exists as a by-product of mining and quarrying—meaning no additional emissions are generated. All new basalt sources are also tested to ensure trace metals levels are well below any thresholds that could be detrimental for agricultural application.

While other silicates exist with potentially faster weathering rates, UNDO sees basalt as the preferred choice for ERW, projecting it will weather in 20 years. This is because the soil health benefits of applying basalt to agricultural land are significant compared to other silicates, which can be damaging. Basalt is also present almost everywhere in the world, making it the preferred choice to scale ERW to UNDO’s billion-tonne targets by 2050.

NOTE to buyers: Thanks to an ex-ante forward purchase agreement, tonnage is 'issued' and available at the time of project deployment — in expectation of future carbon removal set to occur from the time of deployment through the course of the project's lifetime. The project has been deployed (rock weathering process started), but the entirety of the carbon removal process has not yet been completed. Ex-ante carbon credits may not be suited for common climate claims. Reach out to Patch if you have questions about which climate claims would be suitable for these credits.

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Project location

Technology and mechanism

Enhanced Weathering
Increasing the surface area of carbon-absorbing minerals.
Permanence: 10000+ years
The durability of this project is 10,000+ years as a result of the technology used. When CO₂ from rainwater reacts with basalt, the carbon is converted into a solid bicarbonate, where it is locked up. The initial point at which atmospheric carbon removal takes place in the ERW process is when silicate minerals such as olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase are dissolved by the carbonic acid from the rainfall. This process liberates base metal cations (e.g., Ca, Mg) and bicarbonate. In the short term (100 year time scales), CO₂ is captured as bicarbonate (HCO₃-) and to a lesser extent carbonate (CO₃-) in the soil pore waters, groundwater, and surface water. These solutes are transported via rivers and transferred to the oceans, where bicarbonate can have a residence time of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Over thousand-year timescales, the ultimate fate of CO₂ is in the oceans as calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) (or to a lesser extent, magnesium carbonate MgCO₃), with a small proportion re-released as gaseous CO₂.

Project certifications

Patch requires all projects on the marketplace to have its methodology, project design, and outcomes verified by an approved third party. For more on our project vetting and onboarding process, review our Trust and Safety Framework.



Registry ID

Crediting period term

Jan 01, 2024 - Mar 31, 2043

Project methodology

Updated Jan 01, 2022

Project design document (PDD)

Current verifier of project outcomes

350 Solutions

Project details

Emissions reduced or carbon removed on an annual basis
5,000 tonnes
How the project approaches risk of reversal
The risk of reversal for Enhanced Rock Weathering (ERW) is different to the risks posed to Nature Based Solutions (NBS), such as reversal through wildfires or a change of land use. The risk of reversal for ERW is through potential downstream losses and leakages, where carbon removed in the initial sequestration process is released through plant uptake (short term) and then through the formation of riverine carbonate and marine carbonate precipitation (long term). In-line with the scientific consensus across the ERW community, UNDO applies the required "buffer" or discount factor to account for the potential downstream losses and leakages of 21%.
What actions would be taken by the project developer if anticipated emissions reductions do not take place, or if carbon removal is reversed in the future?
Any potential future reversal is already accounted for using the buffer pool mentioned previously. No carbon that falls within this discount factor is credited or sold. Additionally, at the point of verification, UNDO presents to the respective VVB the details of full operational completion (i.e. the exact volume of rock, the mineralogy, spreading locations, etc.) that prove that the operations have been delivered. Once the rock is spread, the only process through which the carbon removal process would then be prevented or reversed has already been accounted for in the above losses and leakages discounting.
What calculation methods are used to independently reproduce and verify the carbon impact of the project?
Please refer to Section 7 of the methodology document.
Citation: Methodology
United Nations Sustainable Development Goals
Zero Hunger
End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
Decent Work and Economic Growth
Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
Responsible Consumption and Production
Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
Climate Action
Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
Life Below Water
Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
Life on Land
Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

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